Tag Archive for: TVRI

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The Supervisory Board (Dewas) of the Public Service Broadcasting/PSB is commonly understood as the highest entity in the governance of the PSB, especially in Indonesia. Dewas contains various elements. It is starting from the public, government to PSB elements.

Public involvement in the Dewas, or according to Masduki, more accurately the Public Broadcasting Council, is vital for LPP. “The key word of public service broadcasting board is representation. The more representative, the more ideal,” said Masduki, UII Lecturer at Department of Communications, who is also research specialist on Public Service Media, at the Webinar held on Sunday, April 4, 2021. 

This weekend webinar welcomes Indonesian National Broadcasting Day, entitled ‘Do We Still Need an PSB Supervisory Board?’ This webinar, organized by the Media Care Society (MPM), Yogyakarta, was attended by various academics, practitioners, and other general participants.

Besides Masduki, other speakers were M. Mistam (Chairman of the Supervisory Board of RRI period of 2016-2020), Paulus Widiyanto (Chairman of the DPR Special Committee on Broadcasting Law Number 32/2002), and Mira Rochyadi Reetz, an academic from the Institute of Media and Communication Science Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany.

Quoting Professor Hanrietty, in the book entitled Public broadcasting and the political interference, Masduki said two things need to be highlighted in a supervisory board structure or a public broadcasting board. The first is the representation and the second is the appointment procedure for the election.

Masduki explained that there are three models of PSB representation in the world. The first is a liberalistic open competitive representation. “This is like the system used in Indonesia, there is potential for clientelism,” Masduki explained. “This means that only those who are close to the voting team have a high chance of becoming the PSB Supervisory Board.”

While the second model is civic representation, all representatives of elements in society are advised to register as PSB Supervisory Board. “For example in Germany, the number of PSB Supervisory Board can be a lot. And they are voluntary. Indonesia has an example, see the press council,” he added.

While the third model is primordialistic representation. The representatives are based on region, ethnicity, gender, etc. “And in Indonesia there are already the experience of the first model of PSB Supervisory Board representation is not good. We have to propose that it be changed in the revision of the broadcasting law,” suggested Masduki, who is also the Founding Council of the PSB Clearing House (Rumah Perubahan Lembaga Penyiaran Publik).

Masduki suggested, now in the future, the councils that are in the election process this time, the more representatives from the public, the better. “The divine principle should be so. For example, from one RRI, one government, then more public representatives,” said Masduki, whose dissertation in Germany specifically discusses public service broadcasting in Indonesia (RRI and TVRI). According to him, this is an effort to recondition towards civic representation ideal in representation in the PSB Supervisory Board.


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Dewan Pengawas (Dewas) Lembaga Penyiaran Publik/LPP jamak dipahami sebagai entitas tertinggi di dalam tata kelola LPP, terutama di Indonesia. Dewas berisi dari beragam unsur. Mulai dari unsur publik, pemerintah, hingga unsur LPP.

Keterlibatan publik dalam Dewas, atau seyogyanya menurut Masduki lebih tepat bernama Dewan Penyiaran Publik, adalah vital bagi LPP. “Dewan penyiaran publik itu kata kuncinya adalah representasi. Semakin representatif, maka semakin ideal,” kata Masduki, Dosen Komunikasi UII, spesialis riset soal Public Service Media di Webinar yang diselenggarakan pada Minggu, 4 April 2021.

Webinar akhir pekan menyambut Hari Penyiaran Nasional ini berjudul ‘Masihkah Kita Perlu Dewan Pengawas LPP?’ Webinar yang diselenggarakan oleh Perkumpulan Masyarakat Peduli Media (MPM), Yogyakarta, ini dihadiri oleh beragam akademisi, praktisi, dan partisipan umum lainnya.

Selain Masduki, pembicara lain adalah M. Mistam (Ketua Dewas LPP RRI 2016-2020), Paulus Widiyanto (Ketua Pansus DPR pada UU Penyiaran Nomor 32/2002), dan Mira Rochyadi Reetz, akademisi dari Institute of Media and Communication Science Ilmenau University od Technology, Jerman.

Mengutip Profesor Hanrietty, dalam buku Public broadcasting and the political interference, Masduki mengatakan bahwa ada dua hal yang perlu disoroti dalam sebuah struktur dewan pengawas atau dewan penyiaran publik. Pertama adalah keterwakilan dan kedua adalah appointment tata cara pemilihannya.

Masduki menjelaskan ada tiga model representasi PSB di dunia. Pertama adalah open competitive representation yang liberalistik. “Ini seperti yang dipakai sistem di Indonesia, ada potensi klientelisme,” jelas Masduki. “Artinya hanya yang dekat dengan tim pemilih yang berpeluang besar menjadi dewas.”

Sedangkan model kedua adalah civic representation. Semua perwakilan elemen di masyarakat disarankan mendaftar menjadi dewas. “Contoh di Jerman, jumlahnya bisa banyak sekali. Dan sifatnya voluntaristik. “Indonesia punya contoh, ya itu dewan pers,” imbuhnya.

Sedangkan Model ketiga adalah primordialistic representation. Perwakilan berdasarkan daerah, suku, gender, dll. “Dan di Indonesia sudah ada pengalaman model pertama keterwakilan dewas ini tidak baik. Harus kita usulkan diubah di revisi UU penyiaran,” usul Masduki yang juga adalah Dewan Pendiri Rumah Perubahan LPP (RPLPP).

Masduki menyarakan, kini ke depan, Dewas yang sedang dalam proses pemilihan kali ini
Semakin banyak berasal dari wakil publik, semakin baik. “Prinsip dewas seharusnya begitu. Misal dari RRI satu orang, pemerintah satu orang, lalu wakil publik semakin banyak,” papar Masduki yang disertasinya di Jerman khusus membahas penyiaran publik di Indonesia (RRI dan TVRI) ini. Menurutnya, ini adalah upaya rekondisi menuju civic representation yang ideal dalam keterwakilan di dalam dewas LPP.

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Does Indonesia have a historical legacy for iIndonesian public broadcasting? This question is important to raise. The question of the historical legacy of public broadcasting may be difficult to answer. Not to mention that the direction of writing the history of Indonesian broadcasting still faces various problems.

Masduki, Lecturer of Department of Communication Science at UII, said that various problems in writing the history of Indonesian broadcasting have made it difficult to trace the legacy of public broadcasting in Indonesia.

This doctoral graduate from the Institute of Communication Studies & Media Research (IfKW), University of Munich (LMU Munich), explains that this fact is different from some public broadcasting practices in Europe and America, for example.

“In the UK, the BBC, as a public broadcaster, was born to meet the needs of quality information for citizens. The BBC has long confirmed that it is in the form of public broadcasting. It is also protected by law,” he said in a discussion at the Amir Effendi Siregar Forum (AES Forum. ) which was held by the Department of Communication Science. on Saturday, August 8th, 2020.

The AES Forum Discussion which was broadcast live by the Department of Communication Science via its First Online TV at UII, Uniicoms TV, was attended by various participants from various campuses, institutions, and NGO. Starting from broadcasting activists, academics, NGO activists, students, the press, and also the citizens of Yogyakarta.

Various Problems in Writing History of Public Broadcasting

According to Masduki,  who is also a broadcasting expert, there are several problems in writing the history of Indonesian broadcasting. He succeeded in tracking down references from books, journals to other literature that talk about public broadcasting in Indonesia. From here, finally, he recited his questions about the history of public broadcasting in his dissertation.

The problems in writing the history of public broadcasting, for example, as He mentioned it, first, books and other references in Indonesia have only focused on actors. Second, if there is any trace of the history of the institution, it only contains single institutions, TVRI for example, and only in certain periods.

Third, the approach used is the pre-soeharto period oral history approach. “This is as we can see in the book ‘Sedjarah Radio’ (history of radio) published by the Ministry of Education in 1953.

The next problem, fourth, is that the writing of history in books is still centered on the strategy of music broadcast content in the colonial era. This is as written by Yampolsky, a writer who researches colonial era radio such as SRV, Nirom, etc.

Fifth, books on the history of public broadcasting are still compiled by several Indonesianist authors. Sixth, the history that is listed only focuses on the organization and dates such as in theses, theses, dissertations, “and tends to copy and paste from various histories which are haphazard and dry analysis,” said Masduki.

“Well, what is missing is the writing of a longitudinal, comparative, and critical pattern of public broadcasting,” he said while explaining the reason he wrote his dissertation which was published by Palgrave Macmillan Publisher, some time ago.

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Apakah Indonesia Punya Warisan Sejarah Soal Penyiaran Publik Indonesia? pertanyaan ini menjadi penting dikemukakan. Pertanyaan soal warisan sejarah penyiaran publik barangkali sulit untuk dijawab. Belum lagi arah penulisan sejarah penyiaran indonesia masih menemui beragam problem.

Masduki, Dosen Komunikasi UII, pakar penyiaran, mengatakan bahwa pelbagai persoalan dalam penulisan sejarah penyiaran indonesia menyebabkan sulitnya melacak warisan soal penyiaran publik di indonesia.

Doktor lulusan dari Institute of Communication Studies & Media Research (IfKW), University of Munich (LMU Munich), ini menjelaskan, fakta ini berbeda dengan beberapa praktik penyiaran publik di eropa dan amerika, misalnya. “Di Inggris, BBC, sebagai penyiaran publik, lahir untuk memenuhi kebutuhan informasi yang berkualitas bagi warga. BBC, memang sejak lama meneguhkan berbentuk penyiaran publik. Ia juga dilindungi oleh undang-undangnya,” katanya dalam diskusi di Forum Amir Effendi Siregar (Forum AES) yang dihelat Prodi Ilmu Komunikasi UII pada Sabtu, 8 Agustus 2020.

Diskusi Forum AES yang disiarkan langsung oleh Prodi Ilmu Komunikasi lewat TV Online Pertama di UII, Uniicoms TV ini, dihadiri beragam peserta dari beragam pihak. Dari kampus, lembaga, dan institusi. Mulai dari aktivis penyiaran, akademisi, aktivis NGO, mahasiswa, pers, dan juga masyarakat umum.

Menurut Masduki, ada beberapa problem penulisan sejarah penyiaran indonesia. Ia berhasil melacak referensi-referensi baik dari buku, jurnal hingga pustaka lainnya yang bicara soal penyiaran publik di Indonesia. Dari sinilah akhirnya, ia mendaraskan pertanyaannya soal sejarah penyiaran publik ini, dalam disertasinya.

Problem Penulisan Sejarah Penyiaran Publik

Problem-problem dalam penulisan sejarah penyiaran publik itu terbagi menjadi beberapa poin. Misalnya pertama, buku dan referensi lain di Indonesia selama ini hanya terpusat pada aktor. Kedua, pun jika ada melacak sejarah institusi, ia hanya memuat institusi, TVRI misalnya, dan hanya di periode tertentu.

Tak hanya itu, Ketiga, pendekatan yang dipakai adalah pendekatan sejarah lisan periode pra orde baru. “Ini seperti yang bisa kita lihat dalam buku ‘Sedjarah Radio” yang diterbitkan oleh Deppen pada 1953.

Problem selanjutnya, keempat, penulisan sejarah dalam buku masih terpusat pada strategi konten siaran musik di era kolonial. Ini seperti yang ditulis oleh Yampolsky, seorang penulis yang meneliti radio era kolonial seperti SRV, Nirom, dll.

Seterusnya, yang kelima, buku-buku tentang sejarah penyiaran publik masih bersifat kompilasi oleh beberapa penulis indonesianis. Keenam, sejarah yang tertera hanya fokus ke organisasi dan tanggal-tanggal seperti dalam skripsi, tesis, disertasi, “dan cenderung salin tempel dari berbagai sejarah yang serampangan dan kering analisis,” kata Masduki.

“Nah, yang belum ada adalah penulisan sejarah penyiaran publik berpola longitudinal, komparatif, sekaligus kritis,” katanya. Ia sekaligus menjelaskan alasan ia menulis disertasinya yang telah diterbitkan oleh Penerbit Palgrave Macmillan, beberapa waktu lalu.